Hake inshore trawl fishery conservation project
The South African inshore trawl sector nominally targets hake (Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus) and Agulhas sole (Austroglossus pectoralis). The sector receives approximately 6% of the hake total allowable catch (TAC) and the entirety of the sole TAC. The sector is one of South Africa’s largest with the catch annual market value worth approximately $6 million USD. Due to a combination of unselective fishing gear (bottom otter trawl) and the bio-diverse fishing grounds of the Agulhas banks on the southern coast of South Africa, the fishery catches on average 40% bycatch in addition to the targets (hake and sole). Although over 100 bycatch species may be found in the catches from the inshore trawl sector, approximately 10 bycatch species represent 95% of the catch together with the targets.
The inshore trawl sector, in conjunction with the larger offshore trawl sector, are Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certified for their hake products. A condition to certification to the trawl sectors is to improve the research and management of bycatch species. The ET fishery conservation plan was, thus, built upon several years of collaborative work between industry, government (South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, “DAFF”), academic scientists from the University of Cape Town (UCT), and NGOs such as the Responsible Fisheries Alliance (RFA), MSC and the WWF.
The ET co-management programme is centred around annual catch limits for 10 bycatch species. The industry body will distribute these limits among rights holders annually pursuant to a formula developed by UCT scientists that considers each right holder’s target species quotas and historical performance of bycatch landings over a limited period. The industry body will facilitate within-season clearing or reconciling of ET catches among rights holders and encourage members to avoid exceeding limits. Should limits be exceeded, DAFF will take action to reduce further catches by restricting the entire fleet (rather than individual right holders). Action may include temporal or spatial closures of fishing grounds and/or roll-over provisions among other options. The system will be tested (and modified as required) during a pilot phase beginning in 2015. The intention is to fully implement the system at the start of the next round of Fishing Rights Allocations for the inshore trawl sector