• Accountability – The obligation of an individual or organization to account for its activities, accept  responsibility for them, and to disclose the results in a transparent manner.
  • Aquaculture – The cultivation of aquatic animals and plants, especially fish, shellfish, and seaweed, in natural or controlled marine or freshwater environments. Also known as farmed fish and can be farmed in a variety of ways e.g. Ropes, cages, ponds, etc.
  • ASC – the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) is an independent, international non-profit organisation that manages the world’s leading certification and labelling programme for responsible aquaculture.
  • Black-list – Seafood on the red list that are either no sale recreational or specially protected species. No sale recreational species may be caught by recreational fishers but are not permitted to be sold. Specially protected species are not to be caught by any fishers (both commercial, recreational and small scale).
  • Bycatch – Any catch of species (fish, sharks, marine mammals, sea turtles, seabirds, etc.) other than the target species. “Incidental catch” can be regarded as synonymous. Bycatch may be either retained (that portion sometimes called “byproduct”) or discarded.
  • CSR – Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a business approach that contributes to sustainable development by delivering economic, social and environmental benefits for all stakeholders. CSR is a concept with many definitions and practices.
  • Ecolabel – With ecolabels, we can select products and services according to specific environmental and social criteria. What this means is that as consumers, eco-labels guide our purchasing decisions by providing information about the ‘world’ behind the product. For businesses, eco-labels are a means of measuring
    performance and also communicating and marketing the environmental credentials of a given product. And for governments, crucially these tools encourage the behavioural change of producers and consumers towards long-term sustainability.
  • FCP – A Fishery Conservation Project (FCP) is where the outcomes are primarily related to the improvement of the environmental performance of the fishery. In FCP’s, MSC certification is not the end goal.
  • FIP – A fishery improvement project (FIP) draws together fishers, industry, researchers, government and NGOs to help improve fishing practices and management. Through a transparent and comprehensive approach, the FIP will increase a fishery’s level of sustainability and help it meet the requirements of the
    Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) standard.
  • Green-list – These are the most sustainable seafood choices from the healthiest and most well-managed populations. These species can handle current fishing pressure or are fished or farmed in a way that does not harm the ocean.
  • Maximally sustainably fished – Maximum sustainable yield (MSY) is having abundance at or close to the level of Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY). MSY is the level at which the fish are able to reproduce and replenish at the same rate that they are being fished out.
  • MSC – The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is an independent 3rd party certification scheme that assesses the environmental sustainability and management of wild-caught fisheries.
  • Orange-list – Seafood on this list are reasons for concern for one or more of three reasons: The species is depleted as a result of overfishing and cannot sustain current fishing pressure, because the fishing or farming method poses harm to the environment and / or the biology of the species makes it vulnerable to fishing
  • Overfished – A species that has been fished to a point where the fish species cannot replace itself through natural reproduction. In this state it is considered depleted.
  • Overfishing – Overfishing occurs when more fish are caught than the population can replace through natural reproduction.
  • Red-list – Seafood from unsustainable populations, that have extreme environmental concerns, lack appropriate management or are ‘no sale species’, illegal to buy or sell in South Africa.
  • ROI – ROI is usually expressed as a percentage and is typically used for personal financial decisions, to compare a company’s profitability or to compare the efficiency of different investments. The return on investment formula is: ROI = (Net Profit / Cost of Investment) x 10
  • SASSI tools – Set of consumer-focused tools i.e. poster, pocket card, WWF-SASSI App and FishMS to help you make sustainable decisions. Target species – Those species (often it is the species that is permitted to be
    caught) primarily sought by the fishermen in a particular fishery i.e. the subject of directed fishing efforts in a fishery. There may be primary as well as secondary target species.
  • Traceability – Traceability is the ability to track a product from boat to plate. In supply chain traceability, is the ability to identify, track and trace elements of a product or substance as it moves along the supply chain from raw goods to finished products. Sub-industries in each category and in different geographic areas may
    define the concept to fit their own needs, but at its simplest traceability enables a breadth and depth of visibility into what goes into produced goods and substances. Transparency – Transparency, as used in science, engineering, business, the humanities and in other social contexts, is operating in such a way that it is easy
    for others to see what actions are performed. Transparency implies openness, communication, and accountability throughout the supply chain.
  • Underfished – These stocks are not being fished at an efficient level, and this is the only area that fishing effort could be increased without causing future damage to the stock.
  • Wild-caught – Taken from the wild rather than bred from captive stock.