Anchovies, Ansjovis, Ancovetta
1. What is it?
Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) is a small, fast-growing species that aggregates in large schools near the surface of the water. In South Africa, anchovy is thought to be optimally exploited. In Spain, anchovy stocks are sustainably fished. The stock in Morocco and Mauritania is fully exploited.
2. How was it caught or farmed?Purse seine
Anchovy are caught using purse-seine nets which are set around a school of fish on the surface to mid-water. Once the fish are surrounded, the bottom of the net is closed by a footrope.South Africa
Bycatch of non-target species can be an issue and makes up 5% to 30% of the typical catch. Bycatch tends to consist of juvenile sardine, red eye, and horse mackerel. There is slight damage to bottom habitats.Spain
Bycatch of non-target species is low however there is concern regarding the high levels of common dolphin bycatch. Discard of species and retained catch of juveniles is also low. Purse seines used properly do not pose any impact on benthic habitats or surrounding ecosystem.Morocco and Mauritania
The most likely Endangered, Threatened and Protected (ETP) species affected by purse-seine are turtles and marine mammals, in particular small cetaceans (e.g. dolphins) although the impact is deemed low. Bycatch is moderate and catches of juvenile target species is low. There is no known damage to the benthic habitat.Midwater trawl - Morocco and Mauritania
Anchovy are caught using midwater trawl nets. Midwater trawling takes place in the pelagic zone between the seabed and surfaces. The fishery has no impact on Endangered, Threatened and Protected species. Bycatch and discards are low. There is no impact on benthic habitats.
3.Where is it from?South Africa
Anchovy are caught in South Africa, mainly off the West coast ( FAO 47) although some are caught off the South Coast ( FAO 51). Anchovy is managed using Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit and vessel permits. There is also a total allowable limit for bycatch (TAB) of sardines and separate Precautionary Upper Catch Limits (PUCLs) for red eye, combined lantern and light fish and cape horse mackerel. Management is considered to be largely effective, and research is ongoing regarding the interactions between the small pelagic fishery and the endangered African Penguin.Spain
Anchovy are caught in Spain ( FAO 27) in the area ICES VIII and imported into South Africa. The stock is managed under the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) of the European Union. Management is largely effective. Anchovy is managed using Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit for the stocks. An ecosystem-based approach of management is in the state of implementation.Morocco and Mauritania
Anchovy are fished around the coastline of Morocco extending towards the Mediterranean Sea ( FAO 34 ) and imported into South Africa. Management is considered to be partly effective. The fishery is regulated under authority of the Moroccan and Mauritanian government. A management system is partly implemented, but details are not available. The FAO provided advice on a Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limitation using a precautionary approach; however, uncertainties remain regarding regional implementation of the recommendation and the high levels of illegal, unregulated, and unreported (IUU) fishing occurring in the area.